Over the past few weeks the US government has made quiet but insistent appeals to urge African states to create no fly zones for Russian planes affiliated with the paramilitary group Wagner. After persuading Chad and Niger to take such steps, Washington is now trying to convince Algeria and Guinea.
As France downgrades its relations with the Central African Republic (CAR), which it sees as too much under Russian influence, the authorities there are exerting pressure on French companies still active in the country.
While Paris is trying to win the influence war against the Russian paramilitary group Wagner the old-fashioned way, Washington has turned to the research world and NGOs with its Tearline program. The program's latest research focuses on Wagner's various activities in Africa.
South African financier Heine van Niekerk and African private military veteran Eeben Barlow are constructing a response to Russian hybrid warfare operators in Africa in partnership with the US firm Studebaker, which employs former Pentagon and CIA officers.